Original Medicare vs. Medicare Advantage: Which is right for me?
John Kimelman is a veteran financial journalist who spent 14 years as an executive editor at Barrons.com. In that role, he supervised a staff of writers, edited and wrote online columns, and wrote feature articles and cover stories for Barron’s magazine. Previously, he worked as a staff editor and writer at CNBC.com and American Banker, the leading trade publication of the U.S. commercial banking industry.
As a 30+ year member of the AICPA, Nancy has experienced all facets of finance, including tax, auditing, payroll, plan benefits, and small business accounting. Her résumé includes years at KPMG International and McDonald’s Corporation. She now runs her own accounting business, serving several small clients in industries ranging from law and education to the arts.
- Perhaps your most challenging Medicare decision is whether to opt for Original Medicare or a Medicare Advantage plan.
- Original Medicare typically provides greater freedom when choosing doctors and other health care providers.
- Medicare Advantage plans usually include a greater number of services, including dental and vision care.
Contemplating the big Medicare decision: Three criteria
If you like the path of least resistance, Original Medicare might be your best bet. Think of it as Medicare’s “default” plan. The mere act of signing up for Medicare automatically enrolls you in Part A (hospital insurance) and Part B (medical insurance, which includes doctor visits). That’s the bulk of what you’ll need in the way of health insurance. Then you’ll have the option of reaching out to a private insurer for a drug plan (Part D) as well as a Supplement plan (also known as Medigap) that covers most or all of the remaining share of hospital and other medical bills that Parts A and B don’t cover.Roughly half of all Americans who opt for Medicare go with tradition and sign up for Original Medicare. But by making this choice, you may be missing out on many benefits that come with the Medicare Advantage plans offered in your region, including additional services such as dental and vision care, all bundled together for a (potentially) lower price than Original Medicare. But you’ll have to choose an MA provider from among all those options. Plus, MA plan choice varies by region. In general, the further you are from an urban center, the fewer options you may have. To get the ball rolling on your research, here’s a comparison of Original Medicare and Medicare Advantage based on several key considerations. Weigh their importance against the premium you’re quoted for each choice you’re considering.
1. The costs, from premiums to co-pays
Original Medicare. For Medicare Part B (the medical insurance part—not the Part A hospitalization part, which requires no premium), you first pay a deductible. After you meet it, you’re still on the hook for 20% (the “coinsurance” level) of your expenses. And meanwhile, you pay a monthly premium for Part B that varies depending on your income as reported on your tax return. (Here’s how Part B premium costs work.) If you opt for Original Medicare and choose to join a drug plan, you’ll pay a separate Part D premium, and that amount will come with a surcharge if your income is high enough.
With Original Medicare, there’s no out-of-pocket maximum—the meter keeps running on that 20% coinsurance level. You may choose to purchase a supplemental (Medigap) policy to cover extras.
Medicare Advantage. Depending on the plan—and the services you use—out-of-pocket costs may be higher or lower than those of Original Medicare. You’ll pay the standard Part B premium, which is $164.90 for calendar year 2023, and perhaps an Advantage premium on top of that. Also, most Advantage plans include prescription drug coverage (Part D).
How to choose: A major advantage of Advantage plans is the yearly limit on out-of-pocket costs for Medicare Part A and Part B services. Once you reach your plan’s limit, you’ll pay nothing for Part A and B services for the rest of the year. Best of all, you don’t need to purchase Supplement insurance. But because there are numerous Advantage plans on offer, you have to figure out the value you’re getting for the $164.90 Part B premium.
2. Doctor and hospital choice
Original Medicare. You can go to any doctor or hospital that takes Medicare, anywhere in the U.S. In most cases, you don’t need a referral to see a specialist.
Medicare Advantage. You need to use doctors and other providers who are in the plan’s network and service area (for non-emergency care). And you may need to get a referral to see a specialist, as well as preauthorization for certain services and surgeries.
How to choose: If selecting your own doctor matters above all else, you might be inclined to opt for Original Medicare. That being said, certain PPO Medicare Advantage plans offer more in the way of doctor choice than HMO Advantage plans.
3. The range of coverage
Original Medicare. Medicare covers the basics: Hospitalization, doctors’ visits, and other health care professional services. But basic Medicare doesn’t cover eye exams or dental care, and you’ll have to join a separate Medicare drug plan (Part D) in order to be covered for prescriptions.
Good to know
In general, neither Original Medicare nor Medicare Advantage cover health care outside the United States. However, you may be able to buy a Medicare Supplement Insurance policy that covers emergency care in a foreign country. If you plan to spend considerable time abroad, make sure you know what your plan covers.
Medicare Advantage. These plans are required to cover all medically necessary services that Original Medicare covers. And they may also offer some extra benefits that Original Medicare doesn’t cover—including vision, hearing, and dental services. Drug coverage is included in most Advantage plans.
How to choose: When it comes to range of coverage, Advantage plans have the edge, but flexibility comes at a price.
The bottom lineWith so many differences in costs and services offered, choosing a Medicare plan isn’t something you want to do in haste. (Although there are pockets of the country—rural areas, in particular—where the network of providers is small, so the decision becomes “you take what you get.”) After carefully considering the three criteria above, think about what you would likely pay in a typical year for anything not covered by Original Medicare, and how much it would cost—over and above the $164.90 Part B premium—in insurance premiums to get those things covered. If researching various Medicare plan options isn’t your bag, it might be wise to reach out to a Medicare advisor—but know that you’ll pay a fee for this service. Some of the best advice on the topic can come from friends and family who are enrolled in Medicare and can share their trials and tribulations. And no discussion of care is complete without a call to your primary care doctor and any specialists who play a role in your health.
- | medicare.gov
- | urmc.rochester.edu
- | consumerreports.org