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death cap, (Amanita phalloides), poisonous mushroom of the family Amanitaceae (order Agaricales). It is the deadliest known mushroom to humans, responsible for the majority of mushroom poisonings 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:worldwide, some of which prove to be fatal.
Death caps are native to Europe, where they are widespread throughout the continent as well as on the 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:British Isles. For a time they were thought to be native to other regions as well, until U.S. researchers with historical and DNA evidence proved that they had been brought to 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:North America on the roots of imported trees. They can now be found as an 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:invasive species on every continent except 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:Antarctica.
The appearance of the death cap mushroom is somewhat similar to other species of mushroom that are nonpoisonous, which contributes to the number of unintentional poisonings. Amanita phalloides caps range in colour from greenish yellow to brown, tan, or rarely white and may take on a metallic sheen with age or drying. The caps range from about 4 to 16 cm (about 1.5 to 6 inches) in diameter; they start out round or oval-shaped and become convex to flat with age. The flesh inside is white and does not change colour when sliced. Young mushrooms are completely covered by a universal veil, a type of membranous tissue that becomes a volva, or bulbous base, as the mushroom matures and the cap expands. The volva is not always apparent aboveground and sometimes may be identified only by fully digging up the mushroom.
The death cap features a sort of skirt called a ring, or annulus, on the stipe (stalk) of the mushroom. The stipe itself is white or yellowish in colour and is about 4 to 18 cm (about 1.5 to 7 inches) long; it is relatively even or sometimes upwardly tapering 1 to 3 cm (0.4 to 1.2 inches) in diameter. The gills on the underside of the cap are white, close together, and do not attach to the stipe. The spores are smooth and ellipsoid; the spore print is white. Death caps smell pleasant when the mushrooms are immature, but the odour becomes foul with age. Those who have accidentally eaten them describe them as delicious, although they are deadly poisonous and should be handled with care and not consumed under any circumstances.
Death caps, like many mushrooms, are mycorrhizal fungi and form a symbiotic relationship with the roots of trees. The fungus exploits the 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:photosynthetic abilities of the host tree, using its fine rootlike mycelium to draw sugars from the roots. In exchange, the death cap helps the tree take up nutrients such as 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:phosphorus and nitrogen from the soil and can increase the plant’s drought tolerance and disease resistance. Death caps are typically found growing near broadleaf trees such as oaks, birches, and elms. In the eastern 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:United States the mushrooms are often associated with pine trees, possibly because a slightly different strain of A. phalloides may be present on the U.S. East Coast or because of competition with native Amanita species in the area.
Toxins and poisoning
The death cap contains three main types of toxins: amatoxins, phallotoxins, and virotoxins; it is unknown what function the toxins are meant to serve in nature. In humans, amatoxins prevent the production of DNA, which leads to liver and 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:kidney failure and, if untreated, coma and death. A single mushroom may contain many times over the amount of toxin that would prove fatal; ingesting only a small piece is enough to kill an adult. The toxins cannot be destroyed by boiling, cooking, freezing, or drying the mushrooms. The medical-imaging dye indocyanine green has cured death cap poisoning in mice but has yet to be tested in humans.
Many of those who fall victim to death caps mistake them for common field mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) or for the edible paddy straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) that are in Asia. Because death caps continue to spread to new areas, people in a given region may not be aware yet that the poisonous mushrooms could be present. Symptoms of death cap poisoning include nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea and begin within 6 to 24 hours after ingestion, long enough that many people do not associate their illness with having eaten the mushrooms. Staying hydrated symptoms, sometimes leading the victim to delay seeking medical treatment. Prompt medical treatment can prevent fatal organ damage.
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been investigated as a possible treatment, as it prevents the toxins from circulating in the liver, which gives time for the toxins to be filtered by the kidneys. Typical treatment involves aggressive hydration and 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:electrolyte replacement, and in some cases liver transplantation may be necessary.
of death cap is thought to have been the cause of death for Holy Roman Emperor 华南永昌配资_在线配资炒股:Charles VI and possibly Roman Emperor Claudius.